Valuation indicators: Shareholder agreement

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If there are more than just you as a shareholder in your business, chances are that you have not put in place one of the most fundamental building blocks for the creation of value in your business:

The shareholders’ agreement

Let me explain. (Oh, and even if you are the sole shareholder in your business, you should pay heed.)

The shareholder’s agreement is more than a document governing the number of shares or percentage of shares held by each person (or entity). It helps deal with the other shareholders’ family in a time of crisis. It provides you all with a negotiated plan of action in the event you are incapacitated on a Sunday evening. It is something which can possibly stop your bank accounts being put under stress by the wife, girlfriend or children of your now dead partner.

The shareholders agreement will dictate how shares, or even the whole business will be sold or otherwise dealt with in the case of a fallout of shareholders. When you guys got together you never considered that one day there would be a divorce. The state forces us to contract for this eventuality in our personal lives, or face the whim of the courts. But in our business lives, which usually get started some time after our marriages, we are reluctant to take the same steps.

The shareholder’s agreement will help to protect minority shareholders in the case of a sale of the business. If you own less than a portion of the total equity, you are at risk of arriving at work tomorrow morning to find that in place of your shares, you have a cheque for the proceeds of the sale, which you knew nothing about.

A shareholder’s agreement can insure that all shareholders have a preemptive right of first refusal on the sale of any of the other shareholders’ shares. That can be very valuable in five years time when Big Larry wants to take off with his mistress.

A shareholder’s agreement can regulate the manner in which new shares are issued, and give you some say in the manner in which new issues are taken up, and by whom.

What happens if one of the other shareholders is a company, and that shareholder’s shareholding changes? Concentrate here. The control of your biggest shareholder changes to that of your competitor, or your ex wife’s new boyfriend… You don’t want to find that your electronic key no longer works on the first of next month.

What have you agreed to in the event one of your shareholders is sequestrated or liquidated?

How, or on what basis will you value the shares of the company in the event one of the shareholders wants to sell his shares to the other shareholders?

How will the shareholders’ loan accounts be handled in any of the above circumstances? And how will funding be sourced and repaid?

What is your agreed dividend policy; or do you simply have an argument at the end of each year? Wouldn’t you prefer to have left some of that money in the account after the last financial year end?

Many businesses actually fail because this very important document is not in place to regulate the way shareholders direct the directors, who (let’s face it) in our realm, are usually the same people. Such a failure leads to all the shareholders losing all the value built up in the business from the start to the time of the failure.

But most important, one day when you decide to sell the business, and all has gone well, how will you agree on the method of sale, and the distribution of the proceeds?

If you are a one man shareholder, read the above again, and give it a think. What will you do when someone offers to buy a portion of your business one day. I know what you should do. Visit an attorney with all these questions, and a bunch of others I have not brought up.

But there is more…

The memorandum of incorporation (MOI). The government put this into place for us a few years ago. Of course we were given an opportunity to make it agree with what we intended in the shareholder agreement, but most of us didn’t bother. The problem is that if there is conflict between the MOI and the shareholder agreement, then the MOI will hold.

Really. It may really be time to spend some money with an attorney.

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